Fruits

Pollination of fruit trees

Pollination is the process of transporting pollen from flowers, as a form of fertilization. This natural process is important for the development of fruit trees. The quantity and quality of the fruits will depend on good pollination.

The transport of pollen is carried out from one flower to another, through the stigmas from the stamens. Fertilization is carried out during the flowering of plants, using so-called pollinating agents. These pollinators are mainly insects, although it can also be given by the wind and through the self-pollination of the fruit tree itself.

 

Types of pollination

There are different ways to pollinate fruit trees using so-called pollinating agents, which can be wind, water, animals, people and the plants themselves. Within these we have anemophilous pollination, zoophilia, hydrophilic, self-pollinating and manual.

Anemophilous pollination

This type of pollination is when the action of the wind intervenes, this is responsible for the transport of pollen. This type of pollination is favored by the high amount of pollen that flower species have, the fineness of this type of pollen also facilitates its dispersion.

An important characteristic of plants is that they have flowers that are unattractive to insects, this in order that pollination is not carried out through them. Pollen grains have a high buoyancy and their transport is disoriented.

This pollination occurs mostly in gymnosperms where the seeds and eggs are in open cavities. Some species of trees with this type of pollination are: hazel, chestnut and pine.

Zoophilia pollination

When pollination occurs through animal species, it is called zoophilia, this in turn is divided according to the animal species that performs the pollination. We can find entomophilic pollination, chiropterophilic and ornithophilic.

Entomophilic pollination. This pollination is carried out by insects and is divided into: melitophilia pollination that occurs through bees, psychophilic pollination through butterflies and phalloophilia pollination carried out by moths.

Although it can also be made by different species of flies, beetles and wasps.

Chiropterophilic pollination. It is characterized by the pollination of plant species (mainly fruit trees), by animals such as bats or flying foxes.

Ornithophile pollination. This pollination is done by birds such as hummingbirds and nectar consuming birds. The plants that are fertilized in this way have mainly showy red flowers. This type of pollination occurs when the insect population is low.

Some fruit trees that reproduce through zoophilic pollination are: plum, mango, avocado, rambutan, apple, tamarind, litchi, jujube, coconut palm, apricot, etc.

hydrophilic pollination

It is pollination that occurs through water. Fertilized plant species are those that live near rivers and lakes.

One of the ways to transport pollen is through rainwater droplets, when they fall and splash causing the pollen to rise and fall on other plants.

This type of pollen has a great ability to float, so another way to fertilize is by transporting the pollen by water currents, until it reaches the receiving flower.

self-pollinating pollination

It occurs in plants that can self-fertilize and do not need an external pollinating agent. Pollen transfer occurs between flowers on the same plant.

Some self-fertile trees are: citrus, apple trees, pear trees, cherry trees, blueberry plum trees, peach trees, among others.

hand pollination

Manual or artificial pollination occurs with the interference of man. With this method, the plants are fertilized by male and female flowers through the transfer of pollen with the help of a brush.

Great care must be taken to keep the brush clean to avoid hybridization of unwanted species.

More frequent pollination in fruit trees

Most fruit trees reproduce through zoophilic fertilization, mainly entomophilous, that is, with the help of insects such as bees.

Pollination by bees is one of the most used and that originates a greater and better reproduction of fruit trees.

This does not mean that the other pollinating agents are not effective, this will depend on the environment, climate and characteristics of the plant.

At a commercial level, entomophilous pollination is the most satisfactory, due to the ease and large number of existing insects, capable of carrying out the fertilization of plants.

The natural reproduction of fruit trees, whatever the pollination agent used, is the best way to generate new species. This guarantees better quality fruits, guaranteeing a higher production.

Fruit trees that do not need pollination

Parthenocarpy is the reproduction of fruit trees without the need for pollination. The fruit generated by this type of tree has no seeds. Within these fruits we can mention bananas, bananas, figs, some watermelons and citrus species. Parthenocarpy can occur naturally or induced.

 

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Robert Asprin, APD is a non-dieting Accredited Practicing Dietitian passionate about inspiring positive changes in eating and lifestyle behaviors to help improve health while nurturing relationships with food and body.

Robert Asprin

Robert Asprin, APD is a non-dieting Accredited Practicing Dietitian passionate about inspiring positive changes in eating and lifestyle behaviors to help improve health while nurturing relationships with food and body.

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