Fruits

Pomology and fruit growing

Pomology and fruit growing are the scientific study of fruit trees and fruit production. They are a branch of botany dedicated to the implementation of cultivation techniques applying technology. Pomology is usually limited to the cultivation of temperate, subtropical and tropical perennial fruit trees.

Within botany, pomology is fundamental for the cultivation of fruits, development of new or improved varieties, development of disease-resistant fruits, and discovery of new pruning and grafting techniques.

Pomology has been an important part of fruit growing for centuries. This improves the quality of the fruit, extends the production season and develops new methods to reduce costs.

The study of this science is carried out by the pomologist, who is the person in charge of developing and improving the different cultivation and production techniques. The pomologist studies identifies, describes and classifies the different fruit trees

 

History of pomology

The first studies of pomology were conducted by the Greeks and Romans. The history of fruit culture and the science of fruit growing date back to the nineteenth century. However true pomology literature emerged during the Renaissance.

In principle, pomology and fruit growing were limited to fruit harvesting activities, after the industrial revolution the formalization of this science began. The techniques applied go through a change, where specific methodologies and procedures are applied for the grouping, care and production of fruit species.

What studies cover pomology and fruit growing?

The research interests of pomology and fruit growing are aimed at improving tree growth, flowering and fruit productivity.

Studies focus on the yield of new crops, with advanced and innovative processes. Through this, resistance to pests and diseases is studied, which is beneficial in reducing dependence on agrochemicals and pesticides.

The studies also focus on crop efficiency, fruit quality, tree vigor, graft efficiency, performance of combinations between different species, and pollination in intensive tree production systems.

Another important part is research on advanced horticultural technologies, including new Spindle formation systems, advanced drip surface irrigation systems and organic mulch systems. The use of plant growth regulating hormones, to regulate flowering and fruiting, are also important factors that increase the quality of the crop.

Finally, pomology and fruit growing also encompass soil management studies to evaluate agricultural and industrial benefits over tree establishment, as well as crops, sustainability and plant nutrition studies, focused on improving fruit quality and yield.

Scope of pomology and fruit growing

Among the activities and scopes that cover pomology and fruit growing we have:

  • Choice and classification of the species to be used.
  • Studies of climatic and soil conditions.
  • Evaluation of economic factors and market requirements.
  • Agricultural planning through factors such as genetic manipulation, species propagation, grafting and fertilization.
  • Improvement of plants through pruning, irrigation and pest control.
  • Implementation of harvesting methods.
  • Evaluation of agricultural yield.
  • Selection, packaging and conservation of the fruit.
  • Marketing and distribution of the fruit.

Advantages of pomology and fruit growing

Among the advantages of pomology and fruit growing we can find three important divisions: commercial, environmental and social advantages.

Commercial

  • Profitability and income with the use of adequate technology for crop management, mainly in species of tropical fruit trees with annual income of half a million dollars.
  • Reduction of tariffs and increase in the added value of derived products such as: fruit pulp, jams, jellies, juices, etc.
  • Greater job opportunities and income distribution.
  • Tropicalization of the consumption of fruits and vegetables.
  • Substitution of imports from other countries.

environmental

  • Restoration of natural resources through controlled planting of fruit trees.
  • Creation of forests that generate energy and oxygen.
  • Rapid recovery capacity of fruit trees in the face of natural disasters.
  • Sustained income to the communities through the environmental management of the plantation of fruit trees.

Social

  • Generation of jobs and economic support for the communities.
  • Activities organized for planting, production and distribution of fruits, with the integration of the entire community.
  • Corporate social responsibility and compliance with social conditions by international consumers.

Economic importance of pomology and fruit growing

The consumption of fruits worldwide is considered a profitable business. Pomology and fruit growing represent an important part of the economic development of a region. This is achieved through capital investment, labor-intensive use, input production, marketing, and product distribution.

The production of fruits as well as their derivatives have a high demand, compared to other agro-industrial items, such as: cereals, tubers, species, vegetables, among others. This production represents in some countries 70% of added value, which is an important part of the economic income of a nation.

 

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Robert Asprin, APD is a non-dieting Accredited Practicing Dietitian passionate about inspiring positive changes in eating and lifestyle behaviors to help improve health while nurturing relationships with food and body.

Robert Asprin

Robert Asprin, APD is a non-dieting Accredited Practicing Dietitian passionate about inspiring positive changes in eating and lifestyle behaviors to help improve health while nurturing relationships with food and body.

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